RSV as a cause of ARDS

Ghazaly MMH, Faddan NHA, Raafat DM, Mohammed NA, Nadel SSepsis, trauma, burn, and transfusion related lung injury are known causes of pediatric ARDS, an alveolar disease leading to hypoxemia. Viral respiratory infection has been mentioned as a more rare cause of ARDS, but the role of individual viruses, such as RSV, is understudied. This single-center retrospective observational study shows that acute viral bronchilitis is an important cause of pediatric acute respiratory distress syndrome in children under the age of 2 years. Among 144 children admitted to the PICU with acute viral bronchiolitis, 27% developed acute respiratory distress syndrome. In half of these cases (51%) RSV was found as the triggering pathogen of disease. Bacterial coinfection was a significant risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome in children with acute viral bronchiolitis. This study confirms that RSV respiratory infection, commonly considered a disease of the distal respiratory tract, often extends to the alveoli, thereby compromising oxygenation.